# Smart Manufacturing and Embedded Sensors

Smart manufacturing is important for Embedded Sensors‘ fabrication. Reliable structures and systems are critical for numerous engineering and biomedical applications, e.g. manufacturing, energy conversion, and biomedical implants. These structures and systems generally operate in harsh environments, such as high temperature, severe strain/stress/pressure, aggressive chemicals, and electromagnetic interference etc. Effective monitoring and diagnosis of these structures or the harsh environments where these structures/systems are operating is of critical importance.

Significant development of micro/nano-systems technology has occurred in recent years. Owning to their small sizes, distributed micro/nano sensors and actuators could be incorporated into various structural systems, such as manufacturing tools, energy conversion structures (e.g. fuel cells, turbine discs and blades), and biomedical structures (e.g. metallic and ceramic implants) without interfering with normal operations or impairing their structural integrity.

However, these micro/nano-systems must survive hostile environments and provide high accuracy, long-term stability, and good reliability during service. To achieve this goal, distributed micro/nano-systems can be embedded—thus avoiding direct exposure from external environments (e.g. chemicals, moisture, contamination etc.)—at critical locations but without interfering with normal operation of the structure. Once these micro/nano-systems are embedded at critical locations not accessible to ordinary sensors and actuators, tremendous benefits can be achieved since both the spatial and the temporal resolution of in-process sensing and control systems can be improved significantly. >>Read more about our publications